Leadership in Communication

What motivates public employees to carry out public services more likely? How can leadership style affect the motivation of public employees? Existing administrative literature identifies Public Service Motivation (PSM) as a factor which makes public employees more willing to serve citizens and society’s stability and development voluntarily. Scholars argue that different types of leadership may heighten or dampen PSM in employees, transformational leadership which directs and advises each of the members of an organization, promotes the PSM, whereas transactional leadership focuses on the cost effectiveness of employees and discourages intrinsic motivation. Therefore, we anticipate that the type of leadership provided by the leaders (suppliers) in the public sector will impact the PSM of members with hierarchical culture in Korean public organizations (consumers). This study identifies leadership types and their effects on organizational PSM, and communication in public sector. We analyze the relationship between PSM, leadership, and communication within the organization, utilizing the Public Employee Perception Survey Data of 2020.

Empirical Indicators of Democracy and Authoritarianism

Developing measures for empirical description and analysis entails several crucial, interrelated tasks. The first task is to establish, in concrete terms, the idea or concept to be measured. The second is to consider the most accurate way to measure the concept. After collecting data and creating the measure, another important task is to evaluate the consistency and reliability of the measure. In political science, the study of democracies—regimes that derive authority from citizens—and how they differ from non-democracies constitutes a major area of research. This bibliography covers works that have contributed to the development of empirical indicators of democracy and authoritarianism through their focus on the topics of conceptualization, validity, measurement, and reliability.


What Do We Know and Do Not Know?

This chapter examines whether existing explanations of South Korean attitudes regarding North Korea and Korean unification adequately explain changes after the declaration at Panmunjom on April 27, 2018. This study uses the National Consciousness Survey Data to estimate these shifts in attitude. Our results show that South Korean attitudes shifted following the Panmunjom Declaration for Peace, Prosperity, and Unification of the Korean Peninsula. We show that existing explanations for generational effects do not explain the national attitude shifts on unification; our study demonstrates that a wide divergence exists between younger and the older generations, and younger generations are more likely to display a negative attitude toward North Korea and unification even after the Declaration. We also show that the prospects of unification evoke different attitudes across generations. Our results imply that the Panmunjom Declaration is a prominent political event, but it is necessary to analyze it without overestimating it.


Infectious Disease Management and New Security Strategies

This study focuses on animal infectious disease issues. The animal infectious disease issues in the line of new security, which are transnational, and difficult to observe how may they intensify. So, it is difficult to cope with the complete termination after the onset, and the whole process is costly. Furthermore, in the process of resolution, the domestic interests surrounding the infectious animals may conflict, causing social confusion and distrust. In other words, the issues of animal contagious diseases can severely damage national security, which requires significant attention and strategic responses. Existing studies of security have taken a structural approach that seeks international cooperation with infectious disease issues. On the other hand, this study argues that, as new security distinguished from traditional security, domestic consensus on crisis management for animal infectious diseases should be preceded by a solution of international cooperation theoretically. The case of African swine fever among animal infectious diseases is analyzed to see how animal infectious diseases affected the South Korean security risk management strategy.

Does North Korea Policies Reflect Public Opinion?

This paper empirically analyzes the public survey data conducted before and after the Panmunjom Declaration on April 27, 2018. We aim to confirm whether the preferences towards North Korean policies, public and leadership have changed under the influence of the New Korean Peninsula Situation since the Panmunjom Declaration. The results indicate that the respondents continue to have discriminatory perceptions towards North Korea in terms of both the leadership and the public despite the 2018 Panmunjom Declaration. However, while preferences towards individual actors changed post-Declaration, these differences do not aggregate to changes in policy preferences towards North Korea. Only the post-Declaration preferences of May 24th measures changed. It indicates indicate a more critical perception of North Koreans, wherein even those with previously optimistic or positive perceptions worsened after the Panmunjom Declaration. Finally, this study suggests that the South Korean government needs to design two-way and flexible policies that take into consideration changes in public preferences as well as the parties involved in inter-Korean relations.