Effect of Reasons for Re/by-election on Voting Participation and Outcomes

This study focuses on the reasons for re/by-election as a factor influencing voting participation and the results of the Korean National Assembly re/by-election after democratization. Existing research examines the re/by-election of a National Assembly as a kind of complementary and subordinate election to national elections, employing the midterm evaluation model, the election campaign model, or the turnout model. This paper argues that voters will participate in and vote in order to hold those responsible for re/by-elections accountable. According to the findings, voters are more likely to vote when incumbents resign due to illegal behavior than when incumbents resign for personal reasons. Furthermore, when an incumbent party re-appoints a candidate for a re/by-election despite previous incumbents resigning due to illegal behavior, voters are more likely to reject that party’s candidate. Using a new variable of the reason for the re/by-election, this study demonstrates that voters participate in and choose to vote in order to hold the political elite accountable for the re/by-election.

Leadership in Communication

What motivates public employees to carry out public services more likely? How can leadership style affect the motivation of public employees? Existing administrative literature identifies Public Service Motivation (PSM) as a factor which makes public employees more willing to serve citizens and society’s stability and development voluntarily. Scholars argue that different types of leadership may heighten or dampen PSM in employees, transformational leadership which directs and advises each of the members of an organization, promotes the PSM, whereas transactional leadership focuses on the cost effectiveness of employees and discourages intrinsic motivation. Therefore, we anticipate that the type of leadership provided by the leaders (suppliers) in the public sector will impact the PSM of members with hierarchical culture in Korean public organizations (consumers). This study identifies leadership types and their effects on organizational PSM, and communication in public sector. We analyze the relationship between PSM, leadership, and communication within the organization, utilizing the Public Employee Perception Survey Data of 2020.

Empirical Indicators of Democracy and Authoritarianism

Developing measures for empirical description and analysis entails several crucial, interrelated tasks. The first task is to establish, in concrete terms, the idea or concept to be measured. The second is to consider the most accurate way to measure the concept. After collecting data and creating the measure, another important task is to evaluate the consistency and reliability of the measure. In political science, the study of democracies—regimes that derive authority from citizens—and how they differ from non-democracies constitutes a major area of research. This bibliography covers works that have contributed to the development of empirical indicators of democracy and authoritarianism through their focus on the topics of conceptualization, validity, measurement, and reliability.


What Do We Know and Do Not Know?

This chapter examines whether existing explanations of South Korean attitudes regarding North Korea and Korean unification adequately explain changes after the declaration at Panmunjom on April 27, 2018. This study uses the National Consciousness Survey Data to estimate these shifts in attitude. Our results show that South Korean attitudes shifted following the Panmunjom Declaration for Peace, Prosperity, and Unification of the Korean Peninsula. We show that existing explanations for generational effects do not explain the national attitude shifts on unification; our study demonstrates that a wide divergence exists between younger and the older generations, and younger generations are more likely to display a negative attitude toward North Korea and unification even after the Declaration. We also show that the prospects of unification evoke different attitudes across generations. Our results imply that the Panmunjom Declaration is a prominent political event, but it is necessary to analyze it without overestimating it.


Infectious Disease Management and New Security Strategies

This study focuses on animal infectious disease issues. The animal infectious disease issues in the line of new security, which are transnational, and difficult to observe how may they intensify. So, it is difficult to cope with the complete termination after the onset, and the whole process is costly. Furthermore, in the process of resolution, the domestic interests surrounding the infectious animals may conflict, causing social confusion and distrust. In other words, the issues of animal contagious diseases can severely damage national security, which requires significant attention and strategic responses. Existing studies of security have taken a structural approach that seeks international cooperation with infectious disease issues. On the other hand, this study argues that, as new security distinguished from traditional security, domestic consensus on crisis management for animal infectious diseases should be preceded by a solution of international cooperation theoretically. The case of African swine fever among animal infectious diseases is analyzed to see how animal infectious diseases affected the South Korean security risk management strategy.