Effect of Reasons for Re/By-election on Voting Participation and Outcomes

This paper argues that voters will participate in and vote in order to hold those responsible for re/by-elections accountable. According to the findings, voters are more likely to vote when incumbents commit illegal acts and are forced to resign by judicial decisions, as opposed to when incumbents resign for personal reasons. Furthermore, when an incumbent party re-appoints a candidate for a re/by-election despite previous incumbents of the party committing illegal acts and resigning by force, voters are more likely to reject that party’s candidate.